CBD PROTECTS KIDNEY FUNCTION
腎臟是器官系統中CB1和CB2受體表達最多的器官，故內源性和大麻類大麻素均可改變其功能。 不幸的是，少有涉及人體的臨床研究，因此我們對大麻素對既存腎臟疾病的腎臟和健康腎臟的影響了解甚少。從可用的臨床前和臨床數據 ，以下是我們所了解的CB1和CB2受體激活對腎臟的影響。
似乎CBD可以發揮直接作用，對腎臟的結構和功能具有保護作用。 但是，CB受體激活的最終生理效應可能不容易預測。CBD可能通過減輕炎症間接改變腎臟功能。 CB2受體的激活具有抗炎作用。 其結果是減少炎性細胞浸潤並產生細胞因子（增加炎症的分子）。 相反，在另一項使用急性腎損傷老鼠試驗的研究中，科學家發現CB1受體的激活與氧化應激增加有關，氧化應激刺激炎症，最終引發細胞死亡 。 減少腎臟炎症的好處在於對心血管系統的影響。 總體而言，它降低了患高血壓和血管僵硬的風險。
因此，大麻素信號可能在腎臟疾病上具有治療作用是合理的。 與THC相比，富含CBD的大麻產品似乎具有更大的藥理潛力 。 我們對大麻素及其輪廓如何激活受體的了解正在增長。 我們很快就會知道哪些菌株和產品對腎臟疾病患者更有益。
傑西卡說：“ 最常見的腎癌是腎細胞癌，它佔診斷的百分之八十五。 一個或兩個腎臟都可能受到影響，如果發現得太晚（或得不到及時治療），它可能會擴散到身體的其他部位。 某些止痛藥和吸食大麻通常會增加患腎癌的風險。 但是，它也可能由於未知的原因而發展。 對於這種類型的腎癌，預後實際上是很好的-只要您在早期階段將其發現並立即對其進行治療。”
此外，傑西卡（Jessica）的文章指出，“突出顯示……的研究”是一個非常早期的階段，但卻是重要的一步。 現在尚無法將初步工作的結果推論到一種基於大麻的新型腎細胞癌治療方法中。 畢竟，它在培養皿研究階段，尚未進入人類試驗。 它還使用合成大麻素，而非基於植物的大麻素。
The use of cannabis has no negative impact on kidney function. Instead, CBD actually protects kidneys from damage.
Kidneys represent an important organ system for both cardiovascular function and the excretion of waste. As such, factors influencing renal (kidney) function can indirectly affect other physiological processes. These include blood pressure control, heart rate, sodium excretion, and the body’s water/salt balance.
The kidneys are among the organ systems where CB1 and CB2 receptors are see the most expression. Therefore both endogenous and cannabis cannabinoids can alter their function. Unfortunately, there are very few clinical studies involving humans, therefore lwe know little about the effect of cannabinoids on both healthy kidneys and kidney function where there is a pre-existing renal disease. From the available pre-clinical and clinical data, the following is what we know about the effects of CB1 and CB2 receptor activation on the kidneys.
Renal diseases like diabetic nephropathy perturb the distribution of CB1 and CB2 receptors throughout the kidneys. Biopsies from patients suffering from nephropathy showed increased expression of CB1 receptor, while in both humans and mouse models, decreased CB2 expression has been noted.
Indeed, studies conducted so far have shown that using pharmacological agents to reduce CB1 activity and increase CB2 activity associates with improvement in renal structure and function in models of chronic kidney disease. In further support of this, administration of cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to preserve renal structures when flow of oxygen was intermittently reduced in an animal model of acute kidney injury.
It seems that the CBD can exert direct effects that are protective to kidney structure and function. The final physiological effect of CB receptor activation however, is likely not easily predictable.
CBD may alter kidney function indirectly by dampening inflammation. Activation of CB2 receptors has an anti-inflammatory effect. Its result is a reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration and the production of cytokines (a molecule increasing inflammation). Conversely, in another study using a mouse model of acute kidney injury, scientists discovered that the activation of CB1 receptors associates with increased oxidative stress, which stimulates inflammation, eventually initiating cell death. The benefit of reducing renal inflammation lies in the effects on the cardiovascular system. Overall, it reduces the risk of developing hypertension and vascular stiffness.
We Need More Research:
We have very limited information about the effects of smoked cannabis on the healthy population and patients with CKD. One single study, involving 647 patients, found that smoking cannabis did not associate with a decline in kidney function. Markers of renal function still did not change in a small prospective trial treating pain with medical cannabis. Additionally, in 1225 patients receiving kidney transplants, using medical cannabis did not alter the function of the transplanted kidney at one year after reception.
It is thus plausible that cannabinoid signaling might work therapeutically on kidney diseases. Cannabis products richer in CBD seem to have greater pharmacological potential compared to THC. Our knowledge about cannabinoids and how their profiles activate receptors is growing. We will soon know which strains and products are more beneficial for patients with kidney disease.In fact, recent studies are looking into cannabis as it pertains to fighting Kidney cancer.
Cannabis for Kidney Cancer?
RxLeaf’s Jessica McKiel wrote about the future of cannabis as a possible treatment for kidney cancer symptoms.
Jessica says: “The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma. It accounts for a whopping eighty five percent of diagnoses. One or both kidneys can be affected and if it caught too late — or left untreated — it may spread to other areas of the body. The risk of kidney cancer is often increased by certain pain medications and cigarette smoking. However, it can also develop for unknown reasons. For this type of kidney cancer, the prognosis is actually quite good — so long as you catch it in the early stages and treat it immediately.”
Further, jessica’s article notes how the “study highlighted … is a very early step, but an important one. It’s far too soon to extrapolate the results from the preliminary work into a novel cannabis-based treatment for renal cell carcinoma. After all, it is in a petri dish, not a human. It also uses synthetic cannabinoids, not plant-based ones. 資料出處